landscape

Tide: The story behind the photograph

Moonlight at St John‘s Point, Caithness, Scotland

St John‘s Point is a headland located on the north coast of mainland Scotland. Visible from this point is treacherous Merry Men of Mey – a tidal race which is formed by the rocks that extend across the Pentland Firth, channel separating the Scottish mainland and Orkney Islands. One of the fastest tidal currents in the world is the strongest on the ebb tide when the current flows east to west. Its speed can reach up to 11 knots (about 20km per hour). The tide is caused by combined effects of gravitational forces of the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of the Earth.




Tide is a phenomenon to watch out for anywhere in the world. Here, in Pentland Firth – the strait that separates mainland Scotland from Orkney Islands – tide is especially strong. In these perilous waters there are number of tidal races that make navigation difficult, even in calm conditions.

I chose to photograph at St John‘s Point for number of reasons. Topographically this place looks interesting even on a map. The promontory with certain imagination resembles an open hand with its rocky „fingers“ dousing the sea. The cliffs not as steep as in neighbouring Dunnet Head are also more accessible. Another reason for visit has been continuation of my photographic practice that deals with landscape and its use as well as man‘s impact upon it.

Several years ago I travelled to St David‘s Head in Wales to photograph location between Welsh mainland and Ramsey Island. This place (Ramsey sound) was chosen for an engineering research and development experiment when an underwater turbine was submerged in the sea in order to generate renewable energy in this channel known for its strong tidal currents. (The generating energy part of this project however, lasted only three months as the active sonar to monitor impact upon marine mammals developed fault and the turbine could not operate within its licence without this equipment being active; then the company behind this project went into administration)

Here, in the north of Scotland, between the Scottish mainland and the Island of Stroma is however an active tidal stream project. It is called MeyGen, also known as Project Stroma and it is being built by SIMEC Atlantis Energy. Topography of this location (similar to St David‘s Head), with its natural channel, was a significant factor for the placement of turbines due to high flows, medium water depth and proximity to mainland where the onshore power conversion unit building is located. The first phase of this project has been implemented and that meant the deployment of four 1.5 MW turbines. They will act as a precursor for later development of the whole tidal array in the subsea area. There are several phases for the whole project still to be completed.

Due to strength of tides and currents around Orkney Islands it is therefore not surprising that the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) based itself on these islands. They provide accredited open-sea testing facility to developers of both wave and tidal energy technologies. „We have been in a position recently where tidal turbines that have been on site, have been producing 7% of Orkney electricity, week in week out.....that is unique at the moment; what we have got to do is to make it a standard“, said Neil Kermode, managing director of EMEC in BBC ALBA documentary An Làn/Tide (A‘beartachadh an Lain/Harnessing the tide episode).

Getting to St John‘s Point wasn‘t difficult. Just a bit of walking, mainly downhill. There was a path among common gorse, a coconut-smelling thorny shrub with its yellow flowers that local people call whin bush. The sign at the end of this large overgrown area read: „This is a common land. There are sheep here on pasture. Please keep your dog on leash.“ The sheep were all around and in this time of the year grazing with its lambs. The path led me across a turfed outcrop which I later found out was a place where St John‘s chapel had stood long time ago. In 1919 John Nicolson discovered a stone slab during excavation within remains of a building. This slab, with finely incised outline of a cross, has been dated to 7th or 8th century.


St John’s Point - view towards Orkney Islands

St John’s Point - view towards Orkney Islands

St John’s Point - view towards Island of Stroma

St John’s Point - view towards Island of Stroma

What a view! I pitch my tent on the tip of the promontory. What a view! On the eastern side is uninhabited island of Stroma. On the northern side is Orcadian island of Hoy. And on the western side is elongated headland of Dunnet Head – the northernmost point of mainland Scotland. Everywhere else is the sea and the sky. The sun is shining and south-easterly wind blows steadily. Kittiwakes are flying in the air and the top of the sea stack called Man of Mey is a nest for oystercatcher. I patiently scan the sea to glimpse any signs of humpback whales, minke whales or orcas who come to Pentland Firth in late May on an annual passage through it. It is in vain though as I am too early for this extraordinary wildlife procession. I gaze long at the sea anyway. The Pentland Firth is a busy shipping channel. Tide is coming in and then going out leaving rocks of Men of Mey partially bare.

Before the evening comes, in full sunshine, I dip in the very cold sea breaking on the disintegrating jetty in one of the geos (small fjord or gully). This jetty was used in the recent past by local fishermen to land herrings, abundant fish stock in the late 19th and early 20th century.

When the sun comes down on the north-west horizon it becomes considerably colder. Different flock of small birds flutter together in the air. With darkness descending, one by one, the lighthouses in the whole area come alive. Their flashing light in frequent intervals serves for navigational aid to warn the boats and ships of dangerous areas. The Dunnet Head lighthouse (built 1831) on the mainland was designed by Robert Stevenson (1772-1850) whose descendants later designed most of Scotland‘s lighthouses. The one opposite me in the distance on Island of Hoy peninsula named South Walls is Cantick Head lighthouse (Thomas & David Stevenson, 1858) and there is another one on the northern tip of Island of Stroma simply called Stroma lighthouse (David A & Charles Stevenson, 1896) which is positioned very close to Swilkie Point – the most dangerous whirlpool in the Pentland Firth where four or sometimes five contrary tides meet. Although Robert Louis Stevenson did not become lighthouse engineer he was very much involved with the sea. He became novelist, poet and travel writer; author of notable works such as Treasure Island (1883) or The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886). He must have visited this place at St John‘s Point as he also wrote a short story called The Merry Men inspired by the infamous rocks and the tidal race (the collection of short stories The Merry Men and Other Tales and Fables, 1887).

Even though there are still buildings visible on the Stroma island, no one lives there anymore. In 1901 it still had population of 375 people. This tiny island was inhabited until 1962 when most people left. The last family, the lighthouse keepers however, abandoned it in 1997 as the Stroma lighthouse was converted to automatic operation, similarly like other lighthouses at the time.


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The night is quiet. The tide had ebbed away and I shelter on the cliffs below my tent, making long exposure. Night is gently illuminated by the Moon. Being in the north in late spring means that the nights are short. It is only 2am but the clouds already display dawn colours of slowly rising sun. It has been a magical night and the light in north-east signifies it would also be a wonderful day ahead.


St David’s head (Wales) - view towards Ramsey Island

St David’s head (Wales) - view towards Ramsey Island

Malhamdale, Yorkshire, England

Watlowes valley, Yorkshire, England   Watlowes dry valley was formed by meltwater running underneath a glacier for a considerable period of time during last Ice age. The dry stone wall which extends in the valley is thought to be the oldest standing wall in the area of Malhamdale. It dates to medieval times when the wall functioned as an ancient boundary between eastern lands of Bolton Priory and western lands of Fountain Abbey.

Watlowes valley, Yorkshire, England

Watlowes dry valley was formed by meltwater running underneath a glacier for a considerable period of time during last Ice age. The dry stone wall which extends in the valley is thought to be the oldest standing wall in the area of Malhamdale. It dates to medieval times when the wall functioned as an ancient boundary between eastern lands of Bolton Priory and western lands of Fountain Abbey.


It was in Carboniferous period, about 300 million years ago, that this area of Yorkshire Dales was a shallow tropical sea. Over a time of about 50 million years a series of limestone beds accumulated at the bottom of this sea. The bedrock got composed from shells of marine organisms and chemical precipitates. Once at the bottom of the sea this limestone formation, now eroded due to slightly acidic rainfall, is to be found at the top, capping the landscape around Malham.

Malham village was founded sometimes in the 8th century. People here grew barley and oats until recently but today the land is dotted by sheep and cattle roaming among the extensive length of dry stone walls. According to survey done in the end of 20th century it is estimated that there are over 5000 miles (8 000 km) of dry stone walls in Yorkshire Dales alone. These walls are dominant feature here and the first field systems may have been built during the Iron Age (about 500 BCE) with the purpose to make livestock safer against wolf’s attacks. Most of the walls around Malhamdale however, were built or rebuilt in the Enclosure period (1780-1840) when government act gradually helped to turn communally owned land into private property. Individual landowners abandoned farming in favour of raising sheep and cattle.

Dry stone walling is done without use of mortar and as such is a disappearing skill on British Isles. Today, this unique trade supports only about 40 qualified dry stone wallers in the whole of United Kingdom.


Malham cove (Winter 2017)

Malham cove (Winter 2017)

Malham cove by moonlight (Autumn 2018)

Malham cove by moonlight (Autumn 2018)

Malham dry stone walls

Malham dry stone walls

Malhamdale limestone pavement

Malhamdale limestone pavement

Malham Tarn

Malham Tarn

Town Head farm, Malham

Town Head farm, Malham

Archeopark Pavlov, Czech Republic

The landscape of Pálava hills is rich in archaeological finds dating to 30 000 BCE. During extensive excavations in region of South Moravia archaeologists unearthed number of Paleolithic settlements as well as great amount of stone and bone tools, artworks, skeletal remains of old stone age humans and animals including mammoths.

Initial idea for a museum was conceived in 2003 and it took further 13 years to design and build this subterranean exhibition space. The concept of underground structure was considered due to number of reasons. The Institute of Archaeology CAS (museum’s commissioning body) wanted to display certain finds in their original context post-excavation. And another reason was that the location chosen for the museum was within protected landscape area.

The museum was designed by architectural studio Radko Kvet and the exhibition combines traditional display with the latest AV technology. The exhibits on show include copy of the most famous find called Venus of Dolní Věstonice (the priceless original is housed in Moravské zemské muzeum in Brno). This small ceramic statuette of a woman was found in nearby village of Dolní Věstonice and has recently been dated to circa 29 000 years BCE. Unlike similar figurines made from mammoth’s ivory found in France, Italy or Russia this one is made from fired clay and therefore significant in broad cultural and technological sense.

The museum building has won number of architectural prizes and its design connects this landscape to our prehistoric ancestors deeper in time.

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Christmas in Cairngorms (The story behind the photograph)

Loch Etchachan, Cairngorms, Scotland

Loch Etchachan in Cairngorms is situated within the central plateau deep in Grampian mountains. Being 927 meters above sea level, it is the highest body of water of its size in Britain. The loch is totally ice free only for short periods of time during a year. It is classified as oligotrophic (meaning nutrient-poor) and is devoid of fish. This remote place best represent Arctic-alpine character of these mountains, unique in British Isles.

 

Cairngorms (Am Monadh Ruadh) are a mountain range that is part of Grampian mountains in the Scottish Highlands. The Cairngorm plateau is the largest area of high ground in Great Britain and as such is prone to heavy snowfall not only in winter.

In May 2015 I spent 10 days roaming alone in Cairngorms walking through Lairig Ghru, Glen Derry, Strath Nethy and Glenmore. In the beginning of this trip I had a goal in mind – climbing the summit of Ben Macdui (1309 m), the second highest peak in Britain which was on my route. However, it turned out differently than planned due to particularly bad weather. The freezing conditions, constant rain or snow and especially persistent high winds made me abandon this idea for safety reasons. I remember at the time how much I appreciated staying night in a bothy (Hutchinson Memorial Hut) in Coire Etchachan as a gale raged outside.

Since that time I wanted to come back to these remote, inhospitable but uniquely beautiful mountains again. This came finally to fruition during Christmas trip to Scotland when I joined friends and experienced mountaineers Fedor & Andrea who climb in Himalayas and other mountain ranges in Alpine style.

Initially we did not set off for Cairngorms but rather for Isle of Skye on the west coast. However, during the journey to Scotland more favorable weather forecast was pointing towards Cairngorms. The providence at play, perhaps. We timed ascent of Ben Macdui just after Christmas  (2017) because the detailed mountain weather forecast indicated clear views from the summits. Needless to say the weather didn’t turn out according to forecast models shown on dedicated information services.

We left from Linn of Dee via Derry Lodge. The board at the lodge displayed information that the small bridge over Derry burn down the glen wasn’t quite in order therefore we took the path on the left bank. It was slightly drizzling and the weather did not suggest winter conditions ahead. Most of the snow thawed and there was very little of it lying up on the hills. We reached the bothy Hutchinson Memorial Hut built in 1954 in memory of Arthur Hutchinson (1902-1949), an Aberdeen born geologist. This was supposed to be our base for few days. Here we were greeted by 55 year old bearded man called Hugh. He has been a MBA (Mountain Bothies Association) member for a long time and as he revealed later on he was the first person who slept here after a substantial update in the form of extension in 2014. Hugh was warm and knowledgeable Scot who came here to prepare and test the routes on which he would be guiding group of tourists in March. As a person with considerable experience in these mountains he had had practical enrichments stashed around places for use when he would be in these parts. As darkness fell and the cold became colder we learned what these things were: wood, coal and whisky. All of them fuel and mood enhancers, if used in convenient way.

The fire in stove transformed the atmosphere in bothy. It was Christmas and our evenings were filled by telling stories, eating food and sipping single malt whisky. Good fire in a stove is, according to author of The Scottish Bothy Bible, Geoff Allan, known as “bothy TV”. Starring into the fire can be mesmerizing and could even prove to be fatal. This we learned when carbon monoxide detector mounted on the inside wall went off. Science works. Thank goodness.

In the night the snow fell and put a white blanket over the landscape. During the day the wind was very strong and we made a walk only to Loch Etchachan, the highest body of water of its size in Britain.

                         Photographs by Andrea and Daniel

                         Photographs by Andrea and Daniel

Our food was going down so we decided to go for Ben Macdui the next day, regardless of weather conditions. Hugh was also going with us and we set off from bothy during blizzard. Snow crystals stung our faces all the way up to Loch Etchachan. After changing direction the wind was blowing from the side. Hugh was leading our party most of the way up but Fedor was also checking the route using his skills and devices. The snow cover was thin with grasses and stones peaking out however, the drifts piled up at places. The visibility was very poor and we benefited from Hugh’s knowledge of the path in dreary terrain. The cairn we reached signified the Ben Macdui plateau. We were not far off the summit but stopped here unlike the wind that continued blowing relentlessly. Fedor made visible arrow in the snow in order not to get confused what direction we came from. This wasn’t summit proper and Hugh decided to walk another 150 meters to get there. We stayed put, looking at his large body disappearing into whiteness of the snow storm. The way down was actually much harder, at least for me. Going against the wind and face the stinging snow crystals was painful. Our previous footprints all but disappeared with the falling snow. This was a harsh environment. My cheek started to freeze and my fingers too. The wind chill factor made temperature even lower. The maximum wind speed recorded by automatic weather station built by Physics department of Herriot-Watt University on the summit of Cairn Gorm (1245 m) is stated in the book by Patrick Baker - The Cairngorms: a secret history to have been 176 miles per hour (283 km per hour). Comparing our struggle to such mayhem would be unimaginable. Still, it was difficult to breathe, hard to keep my eyes open. Hugh then caught up with us and we got safely back to bothy.

Although we did not get up to summit proper it was great journey to experience winter in Cairngorms and that in spite of cold conditions, strong winds and noisy rattling tents at nights. And as the old saying goes, the journey itself is more important than the destination. It certainly proved to be the case.

 

                         Photographs by Hugh, Fedor and Andrea

                         Photographs by Hugh, Fedor and Andrea