Cheddar Gorge, England

Cheddar gorge in Mendip Hills is the largest gorge in England. This gorge was formed in limestone during last Ice age by meltwater rushing down from glaciers over period of 1.2 millions of years. The river (today called Cheddar Yeo river) gradually made its way underground thus creating a complex underground system of caves. There are now many smaller caves in the area around Cheddar as well as two bigger ones that are open to public. Cox’s cave was discovered by George Cox in 1837 and Gough’s cave by Richard Gough in 1898. The underground was extensively examined by cavers as well as archaeologists and many bones and various artifacts were found. The most distinguished archaeological find (1903) was an almost complete skeleton of so called Cheddar man which is currently on loan in Natural History Museum in London. Radiocarbon dating suggests this specimen lived here around 10 000 years ago. New research into his ancient (degraded) DNA was recently carried out at the NHM and the study proposes that there is high probability this mesolithic hunter-gatherer still had dark skin.

Due to its natural beauty and steep rocks Cheddar gorge is a great place for climbers. It is also generally touristic place that is visited by nearly half a million people every year. The road B3135 winds through the gorge and is an ultimate test for drivers, bikers and cyclists alike. Not all people come to see protected landscape as their priority because this area is also very famous for its cheddar cheese that is still being produced in the village.

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Cheddar gorge

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Cheddar gorge (Heart Leaf Bluff) by moonlight

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St. Paul's chamber at Gough's cave

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Road B3135 (Horseshoe bend)

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Road B3135 through the gorge

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Gough's cave

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Skeleton of Cheddar man at Natural History Museum, London

Walks in English countryside

Some time ago I was given old Czechoslovak camera called Flexaret IV. Apparently it wasn’t in use for long time, hidden in loft of a household gathering the dust. It is a medium format camera very popular during 50’s and 60’s. In those times it was preferable choice for amateur photographers beyond eastern Europe and indeed very popular with Czechoslovak families. This camera utilizes square format (approximately 6X6 cm) and uses 120 film which was initially introduced by Kodak for their Brownie No.2 camera in 1901.

It looked in good repair and after I cleaned it I realized that this camera was in really good condition. I ran through it Ilford film in order to find out whether it was worth keeping for the actual use or to be kept as a decoration or perhaps even a collectable item. The resulting images pleasantly surprised me. I started to take the ‘box’ with me on walks with my friends in English countryside as I wanted to have images with different feel as pictures taken by today's camera phones are just too ubiquitous. Another, more tangible reason for its use on my walks is that I do not want to carry the weight of my main camera kit on my back.

It is all manual camera made in 1957 and its design, function and durability makes it still possible to take photographs after 60 years since it was made by Meopta company in Přerov.

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Archeopark Pavlov, Czech Republic

The landscape of Pálava hills is rich in archaeological finds dating to 30 000 BCE. During extensive excavations in region of South Moravia archaeologists unearthed number of Paleolithic settlements as well as great amount of stone and bone tools, artworks, skeletal remains of old stone age humans and animals including mammoths.

Initial idea for a museum was conceived in 2003 and it took further 13 years to design and build this subterranean exhibition space. The concept of underground structure was considered due to number of reasons. The Institute of Archaeology CAS (museum’s commissioning body) wanted to display certain finds in their original context post-excavation. And another reason was that the location chosen for the museum was within protected landscape area.

The museum was designed by architectural studio Radko Kvet and the exhibition combines traditional display with the latest AV technology. The exhibits on show include copy of the most famous find called Venus of Dolní Věstonice (the priceless original is housed in Moravské zemské muzeum in Brno). This small ceramic statuette of a woman was found in nearby village of Dolní Věstonice and has recently been dated to circa 29 000 years BCE. Unlike similar figurines made from mammoth’s ivory found in France, Italy or Russia this one is made from fired clay and therefore significant in broad cultural and technological sense.

The museum building has won number of architectural prizes and its design connects this landscape to our prehistoric ancestors deeper in time.

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Christmas in Cairngorms (The story behind the photograph)

Loch Etchachan, Cairngorms, Scotland

Loch Etchachan in Cairngorms is situated within the central plateau deep in Grampian mountains. Being 927 meters above sea level, it is the highest body of water of its size in Britain. The loch is totally ice free only for short periods of time during a year. It is classified as oligotrophic (meaning nutrient-poor) and is devoid of fish. This remote place best represent Arctic-alpine character of these mountains, unique in British Isles.

 

Cairngorms (Am Monadh Ruadh) are a mountain range that is part of Grampian mountains in the Scottish Highlands. The Cairngorm plateau is the largest area of high ground in Great Britain and as such is prone to heavy snowfall not only in winter.

In May 2015 I spent 10 days roaming alone in Cairngorms walking through Lairig Ghru, Glen Derry, Strath Nethy and Glenmore. In the beginning of this trip I had a goal in mind – climbing the summit of Ben Macdui (1309 m), the second highest peak in Britain which was on my route. However, it turned out differently than planned due to particularly bad weather. The freezing conditions, constant rain or snow and especially persistent high winds made me abandon this idea for safety reasons. I remember at the time how much I appreciated staying night in a bothy (Hutchinson Memorial Hut) in Coire Etchachan as a gale raged outside.

Since that time I wanted to come back to these remote, inhospitable but uniquely beautiful mountains again. This came finally to fruition during Christmas trip to Scotland when I joined friends and experienced mountaineers Fedor & Andrea who climb in Himalayas and other mountain ranges in Alpine style.

Initially we did not set off for Cairngorms but rather for Isle of Skye on the west coast. However, during the journey to Scotland more favorable weather forecast was pointing towards Cairngorms. The providence at play, perhaps. We timed ascent of Ben Macdui just after Christmas  (2017) because the detailed mountain weather forecast indicated clear views from the summits. Needless to say the weather didn’t turn out according to forecast models shown on dedicated information services.

We left from Linn of Dee via Derry Lodge. The board at the lodge displayed information that the small bridge over Derry burn down the glen wasn’t quite in order therefore we took the path on the left bank. It was slightly drizzling and the weather did not suggest winter conditions ahead. Most of the snow thawed and there was very little of it lying up on the hills. We reached the bothy Hutchinson Memorial Hut built in 1954 in memory of Arthur Hutchinson (1902-1949), an Aberdeen born geologist. This was supposed to be our base for few days. Here we were greeted by 55 year old bearded man called Hugh. He has been a MBA (Mountain Bothies Association) member for a long time and as he revealed later on he was the first person who slept here after a substantial update in the form of extension in 2014. Hugh was warm and knowledgeable Scot who came here to prepare and test the routes on which he would be guiding group of tourists in March. As a person with considerable experience in these mountains he had had practical enrichments stashed around places for use when he would be in these parts. As darkness fell and the cold became colder we learned what these things were: wood, coal and whisky. All of them fuel and mood enhancers, if used in convenient way.

The fire in stove transformed the atmosphere in bothy. It was Christmas and our evenings were filled by telling stories, eating food and sipping single malt whisky. Good fire in a stove is, according to author of The Scottish Bothy Bible, Geoff Allan, known as “bothy TV”. Starring into the fire can be mesmerizing and could even prove to be fatal. This we learned when carbon monoxide detector mounted on the inside wall went off. Science works. Thank goodness.

In the night the snow fell and put a white blanket over the landscape. During the day the wind was very strong and we made a walk only to Loch Etchachan, the highest body of water of its size in Britain.

                           Photographs by Andrea and Daniel

                         Photographs by Andrea and Daniel

Our food was going down so we decided to go for Ben Macdui the next day, regardless of weather conditions. Hugh was also going with us and we set off from bothy during blizzard. Snow crystals stung our faces all the way up to Loch Etchachan. After changing direction the wind was blowing from the side. Hugh was leading our party most of the way up but Fedor was also checking the route using his skills and devices. The snow cover was thin with grasses and stones peaking out however, the drifts piled up at places. The visibility was very poor and we benefited from Hugh’s knowledge of the path in dreary terrain. The cairn we reached signified the Ben Macdui plateau. We were not far off the summit but stopped here unlike the wind that continued blowing relentlessly. Fedor made visible arrow in the snow in order not to get confused what direction we came from. This wasn’t summit proper and Hugh decided to walk another 150 meters to get there. We stayed put, looking at his large body disappearing into whiteness of the snow storm. The way down was actually much harder, at least for me. Going against the wind and face the stinging snow crystals was painful. Our previous footprints all but disappeared with the falling snow. This was a harsh environment. My cheek started to freeze and my fingers too. The wind chill factor made temperature even lower. The maximum wind speed recorded by automatic weather station built by Physics department of Herriot-Watt University on the summit of Cairn Gorm (1245 m) is stated in the book by Patrick Baker - The Cairngorms: a secret history to have been 176 miles per hour (283 km per hour). Comparing our struggle to such mayhem would be unimaginable. Still, it was difficult to breathe, hard to keep my eyes open. Hugh then caught up with us and we got safely back to bothy.

Although we did not get up to summit proper it was great journey to experience winter in Cairngorms and that in spite of cold conditions, strong winds and noisy rattling tents at nights. And as the old saying goes, the journey itself is more important than the destination. It certainly proved to be the case.

 

                           Photographs by Hugh, Fedor and Andrea

                         Photographs by Hugh, Fedor and Andrea

From the Archives – Zimbabwe 2001

Recently, with much interest, I followed news in various media about events in Zimbabwe. Former president Mugabe has now resigned from his post after being put under pressure from his own army. People in Zimbabwe celebrated in the streets and hope in general is held high for this African country. Time will tell whether the change of personnel was for better or for worse. I wish for the former to be true.

In 2001 I travelled in this beautiful country and later on published my first ever article in Czech geographical magazine Lidé a Země. Here is an English translation of that article which appeared in the magazine in March 2003

The Smoke which Thunders

Applying for the visa to Zimbabwe, politically and economically chaotic country has been quite a problem. Finally, after ten days of waiting and urging the authorities to get my visa processed, my passport is stamped in Johannesburg and the way to Zimbabwe is open to me. My hopeful goal is to reach Victoria Falls.

First however, my journey takes me to a town called Bulawayo (translated as “town of killing”). I obviously knew the media stories about fate of white farmers, opposition politicians and journalists, so even the name of the town endangers in me some sense of unease.

We reached the border at the town of Beithbridge in the morning. Even before our arrival, still in South African territory, several Zimbabwean women boarded the coach in search of “western” currency in exchange for their Zimbabwean dollars. At the time when an economic embargo has been imposed on this country due to political repression practiced by the current president and dictator, Robert G. Mugabe, any “hard” currency has served to provide at least some improvement in living conditions for ordinary people.

There were already many coaches queuing at the border. Getting my passport stamped along with hundreds of people surrounding counters was nearly impossible task.

Outside, I am at once confronted with huge poverty here. Begging children are approaching me. They escort their blind, legless or otherwise handicapped grandparents injured during war for independence. As no structure of social services exist in Zimbabwe, these people have to rely on begging which may be their only source of income.

On the way to Bulawayo the landscape is somewhat hilly and dotted with boulders of various shapes and sizes. These boulders follow me up all the way and are the main features along the route. During three hundred kilometers the coach has passed only four cars going opposite direction. At the time when a petrol crisis was coming to a head in the whole country, it was difficult to get any petrol at all. When approaching the outskirts of the town Bulawayo I noticed two things: long queues at petrol stations (with no drivers in their cars) and expansively wide avenues. These wide avenues were built by Cecil J. Rhodes who came to Zimbabwe as a colonizer and diamond prospector (this former British colony called Rhodesia was named after him). He required such wide avenues in order to accommodate the width of fifteen harnessed oxen one next to the other.

The town itself is well planned and despite visible poverty the streets give nice impression. It is easy to orient oneself and looking for a railway station takes only a moment. Once in there I found out that after four days of temporary closure of railways the Ministry of Transport has obtained some supply of diesel. This means that railway can be reopened for at least a week I am assured by officials.

I meet a man called Sydney. He together with his girlfriend invite me for lunch. I accept the offer and they lead me to a nearby restaurant. Sydney is from neighboring Zambia but he has been living and working here at the train station for several years. I learn from Sydney that Bulawayo and nearby villages are in a region which supports foremost the political party of Morgan Tsvangirai MDC (Movement for Democratic Change). His party struggles in opposition against the ZANU-PF party of the current president Mugabe.

Sydney’s talk has been interrupted by waiter. He brings us wash-bowl with water. It serves for hand-washing before every meal. Here they eat using hands with no cutlery. There is a traditional sadza on the table – rigid corn porridge – and also stewed beef.

After the meal I learn about another criticism of the current regime from other people’s mouths. I meet a woman who leads me on to show me the conditions in which people have to live here. Unemployment in the country has reached fifty percent. Many people are forced to live right on the streets or in slums made of cardboard boxes.

It is surprising since after winning independence Zimbabwe has followed what appeared to be a good path. Unfortunately today, this path does not seem to be in the interests of ordinary citizens and the country has lost its way. After the colonizers left the developed industries remained in the country. Based on rich resources of mineral deposits Zimbabwe has become a prosperous developing country with reliable income from tourism. However, unjust distribution of land and bitter disputes between the leading parties have halted the promising economic growth and thus contributed to a rise in unemployment. The repressive policy of president Mugabe placed this country on the verge of civil war.

Still in Bulawayo I met few other foreigners and we assembled a little group and hired a tracker and guide called Stanley. We are going for safari to Matobo National Park.

It is raining. The chance to see white rhinoceros in their natural habitat is now diminished. But for now there are other species to see here: wildebeests, zebras, hippos, giraffes and many more. Matobo National Park is also famous for the rock formations which are “sowed” far beyond its frontiers. Some of these rock formations are associated with all kinds of stories and legends. They are considered by locals to be sacred. It is believed that even pointing at them can bring misfortune for the rest of one’s life. Stanley gives us this information beforehand and therefore he doesn’t point at the peak called Shumba Sham out of superstition when we are passing it. Looking at these works of “Mother Earth”, it is incredible that they were created solely by natural processes of volcanic activity and subsequent erosion. Behind a ford we have suddenly seen a group of five rhinos. Stanley has given us some quick instructions as what to do if we are attacked. Then, we got off the car and sneak closer to them. They are by the river, drinking. Still, they do not sense our presence. Stanley whispers that if those were black rhinos we couldn’t have possibly got so close because they are more aggressive. Rhinos have developed good sense of hearing and smell. They also distinguish faster movement very well so we cannot do anything rush.

After this experience on foot in animal kingdom we are walking in meditative mood towards a hill on which there is a cave called Nswatugi. There are ancient paintings of the San people also known as Bushmen. At the entrance to the cave all becomes transformed as we are going back ten thousand years to the time when these paintings were created. Among all those paintings on the cave walls the most mysterious one could not be seen in normal light conditions. We had to diminish the impact of the light on the rock by whatever means and when the intensity of light was lower the rock has released a “three-dimension-like” painting of an animal. We test the appearance and disappearance of the painting again and again. With such experience one is made to think deeper about the sense or purpose of this art that was created by “primitive” Bushmen tribes. We are finishing our day on a hill called Malindzimu (Sanctuary of Ancestral Spirits). This place is an inselberg where big boulders are spaced out upon a vast stone plate. Apparently the whole world can be seen from this place. The landscape around had come to existence by tectonic movement three billion years ago. Today this place is also known as resting place of Cecil Rhodes who chose this land for his grave and named it View of the World.

I prepare myself for the sleeper train journey to Victoria Falls town. The train is the only transport in this country which still sometimes operates albeit with days of disruption. The train runs very slow and often stops due to signal failure. The falls let one know about their presence long before one’s arrival. The “smoke” has risen up to half kilometer from the cataract and can sometimes be blown by wind up to eighty kilometers from there.

Standing on the bridge between Zimbabwe and Zambia the falls can be seen only partially from here. I rather admire the bridge itself which carries a piece of interesting historical mark. This bridge was officially opened by Francis Darwin, son of famous biologist and author of Evolution theory. The architect of the project was Ralph Freeman who basically copied a structure of a bridge in Sydney harbour. The construction was financed by Rhodes’ company; unfortunately he died before the bridge was finished. The river Zambezi which has its source in Mvinilunga region in north-west Zambia flows hundred meters below.

When I have finished this viewing I finally walk towards rainforest for closer look at the falls. The sun is shining and its rays penetrate the foliage and together with the scatter of spray create rainbow which is still about three meters from me. In spite of knowing I cannot succeed I am trying to catch it. All my steps are made in the midst of intense thunder and with the first look at the falls I contemplate how exact the name Mosa-oa-Tunya (The Smoke which Thunders) is. This name was given to the waterfalls by Kololo-lozi tribe who had lived on the banks of the river Zambezi from ancient times. The falls were renamed in 1855 by the Scottish missionary and explorer David Livingstone who named them after the Queen Victoria. Viewing the Devil’s cataract, one of the five parts of the waterfalls, I ponder. It is seriously hard to describe the feelings that pass through me. The words of Jiri Zeman who lived and worked in Africa for many years seem to be the accurate description: “Hundreds and hundreds of books and brochures describe the waterfalls but even the greatest of photos cannot substitute for the imminent impression of bulkiness, water scattering and the roar of thunder.” The most intense flow of water is in the rainy season in March and April. At that time 720 million of litres of water fall down the gorge per second. It is then understandable that such a vast flow causes severe progressive erosion which slowly destroys the bedrock of the falls. Their width, currently spanning 1.7 kilometer is therefore constantly changing with the flow of the rivers and alters its position. This process has already recreated the falls eight times during the past half million years and this will last as long as the water in the Zambezi river continues to flow.

 

 Mosa-Oa-Tunya

Mosa-Oa-Tunya

 Malindzimu hill (dwelling place of the generous spirits)

Malindzimu hill (dwelling place of the generous spirits)

 Nswatugi cave painting

Nswatugi cave painting

Roca London Gallery

During the annual Open House in London I visited this relatively small place with complex design. It is certainly not an ordinary shop.

Roca Gallery London was designed by Zaha Hadid Architects as a gallery and presentation showroom for leading bathroom and tiles manufacturer. This complex and innovative space creates interesting visual experience that may be comparable to moving through a cave or canyon. It is no wonder as the inspiration to the architects was indeed water – its different forms and attributes. The gallery occupies one floor and there are two main features in its design. Firstly, it is continuity and fluidity of space which twists and turns creating one seamless experience of movement through the interior. Secondly, it is the contrast between materials used: GRC (glass reinforced concrete) and GRG (glass reinforced gypsum). The space is not only used for showcasing Roca’s products but also for exhibitions, public lectures and other events.

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Serpentine Pavilion 2017

The classical style Serpentine Gallery in Kensington Gardens was built as a tea room in 1934 and serves as gallery since 1970. By the time it firmly established itself as a pioneering institution showcasing contemporary art.

Since 2000 new temporary addition to gallery in form of pavilion was conceived by former Director Julia Peyton-Jones. Thus, every year an internationally renowned architect is commissioned and has got just 6 months to design and build Serpentine Pavilion in front of the gallery for visitors to enjoy. Due to this fascinating programme summer in London’s Kensington Gardens is enriched with unique structure. The same place is different on every occasion and every design contributes to great diversity of ideas presented. The idea, design, construction and implementation is being discussed well beyond London.

This year the pavilion was designed by Francis Kéré and his Berlin-based practice. The architect was inspired by gatherings under tree canopies in his home country, Burkina Faso.

Below are also some other pavilions designed in earlier years.

 

 Francis Kéré 2017

Francis Kéré 2017

 Francis Kéré 2017

Francis Kéré 2017

 Francis Kéré 2017

Francis Kéré 2017

 Francis Kéré 2017

Francis Kéré 2017


 Bjarke Ingels 2016

Bjarke Ingels 2016

 Bjarke Ingels 2016

Bjarke Ingels 2016

 selgascano 2015

selgascano 2015

 Sou Fujimoto 2013

Sou Fujimoto 2013

 Herzog & de Meuron and Ai Weiwei 2012

Herzog & de Meuron and Ai Weiwei 2012

 Peter Zumthor 2011

Peter Zumthor 2011

St.Conan’s Kirk, Loch Awe, Scotland

When the Callander and Oban Railway was was built in Scotland during the 1870’s, it opened up then largely deserted north shore of Loch Awe. Here, a self-made architect Walter Douglas Campbell (1850-1914) purchased a small island Innis Chonnain where he built house for his mother Caroline Agnes, his sister Helen and himself. Local tradition tells a story that his mother found a journey to nearest church in Dalmally too tiring and therefore Walter decided to build her a church nearby. The original building was finished in 1886. However, Walter was still not satisfied with the work but it took another 20 years before he began to enlarge the original structure. He used local stone and craftsmen to create a unique place with interesting details. After his death his sister Helen took over and supervised finishing of the building. The church as we can see today was consecrated in 1930. Despite its medieval look this church does not adhere to any particular architectonic style. His designs borrow from different periods like Norman, Romanesque and employ Celtic symbolism as well. It even includes elements connected to Iona Abbey (one of the oldest Christian centre in Scotland) in the shape of the window or wooden beams used above doorway that were taken from two distinguished ships HMS Caledonia and HMS Duke of Wellington as timber. It is here the Campbell family is also buried. Recently this church was included in Top 10 buildings built in last 100 years by popular vote as part of Festival of Architecture 2016.

 St.Conan's Kirk view from south

St.Conan's Kirk view from south

 The nave

The nave

 Entrance to church from the cloisters / Window from Iona Abbey

Entrance to church from the cloisters / Window from Iona Abbey

Yellow submarine, Bruichladdich, Scotland

During our recent trip to Islay to explore this island’s famous distilleries I noticed, as everyone else who visited Bruichladdich distillery since last year, shiny ROV (remotely-operated vehicle) placed outside in their courtyard. After the trip I did little research into this object and found out rather interesting story.

In June 2005 when local John Baker was fishing about 3 miles from Mull of Oa he spotted an object floating just underneath the surface. As he considered it hazard to shipping in the area he contacted his brother-in-law Harold from Islay coastguard who helped him to bring it ashore. As the mine detecting robot had clear MOD (Ministry of Defense) markings Harold called his colleagues at Clyde coastguard who contacted Royal Navy base in Faslane about this lost vessel. However, Royal Navy repeatedly denied losing any submarine or any other vessel.

In the meantime Harold placed the sub in his garden in Port Ellen where it became tourist attraction. In about two weeks time Harold received a phone call from Royal Navy and they admitted that it is really one of their own. And in three months time they finally sent Mine Counter Measure Vessel HMS Blyth from Faslane to collect the submarine.

With little time they had Bruichladdich distillery decided to use this story and released their now legendary WMD II ‘Yellow submarine’ 14 year old whisky with the submarine on the label (in this case of clever marketing WMD stands for Whisky of Mass Distinction rather than Weapons of Mass Destruction).

During collection of their submarine the skipper of HMS Blyth was presented with a case of this new Bruichladdich whisky and to no surprise the Royal Navy also purchased some more of these bottles later.

The story went full circle recently when John Gamble from Islay noticed that the submarine became obsolete and therefore surplus to requirements as it was entered to auction through e-Bay from Plymouth base. Wisely, Bruichladdich distillery stepped in and bought the 850 kg sub for themselves. After some necessary restoration in Portnahaven in Islay it was craned on to Bruichladdich distillery courtyard to a great applause during Annual Open Day 2016.

 

Yellow submarine, Islay, Scotland

A 82

A 82 is a fascinating road that runs from Glasgow to Inverness via Scottish Highlands. The passage in Glencoe looks dramatic whether you are driving on this road or walking in its proximity.

Standing on small outcrop above the road, overlooking monumental rocky ridge Aonach Eagach, cold February night is descending. In the dark, this section resembles an artery. The flow of cars with people and goods is moving along Glencoe's majestic landscape in both directions. This road was constructed by civil engineer Thomas Telford using existing Drover's road. The current tarmacked road, built in 1930's criss-crosses his alignment throughout the glen.

This image was a Runner-up in Your View category of Landscape Photographer of the Year 2016. Here is the original image and exhibition view at Waterloo station in London as well as double page spread in Xantypa magazine.

A 82

 LPOTY 2016, View at the Exhibition in Waterloo station, London (January 2017)

LPOTY 2016, View at the Exhibition in Waterloo station, London (January 2017)

 A 82 in Xantypa (May 2017)

A 82 in Xantypa (May 2017)

 Landscape Photographer of the Year: Collection 10

Landscape Photographer of the Year: Collection 10